Bond, M. (London, 1976)Google Scholar. , Charles suffered a sudden apoplectic fit on the morning of 2 February 1685, and died aged 54 at 11:45 am four days later at Whitehall Palace. , In 1665, Charles was faced with a great health crisis: the Great Plague of London. 26 Barrillon to Louis XIV, 22 Dec. 1678 (n.s. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. 3 Tanner, , Constitutional Conflicts, p. 214Google Scholar; Hill, , Century of Revolution, p. 224Google Scholar; Stone, L., Causes of the English Revolution (London, 1972), pp. (P.R.O., Baschet, 128); Temple, , Memoirs, p. 277Google Scholar. Louis XIV replied that he was willing to help England but in return he demanded that Charles become a Catholic. For the last years of the Cavalier Parliament a loose grouping of Members, known as the Country party, had opposed the Court's influence in Parliament, particularly its attempts to secure votes through bribes and patronage. English Civil War Charles offended Puritans by upholding the rituals of the Anglican Church. 139 Hyde claimed they were doing so (Grey, , Debates, VIII, 265, 271)Google Scholar. Although the Parliament voted the king an estimated annual income of £1,200,000, Charles had to wait many years before his revenues produced such a sum, and by then the damage of debt and discredit was irreparable. 77 C.J., IX, 287, 298; Grey, , Debates, II, 348Google Scholar; see also, ibid., pp. Beaufort, p. 111Google Scholar. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. 59 S.R, V, 834–6, 860–2, 871–3, 881–2, 930. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, he formally agreed to the Covenant; his abandonment of Episcopal church governance, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England. 87 Ibid., V, 77; VII, 266 (quoted); VIII, 187; H.M.C., Beaufort, p. 109Google Scholar. 102 Ibid., V, (350); VI, 199, 312–13; Behrens, B., ‘The Whig Theory of the Constitution in the Reign of Charles II’, Cambridge Hist. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. 60, 68Google Scholar. Some even sought to confer the Crown on the Protestant Duke of Monmouth, the eldest of Charles's illegitimate children. 4 Elton, G. R., ‘Parliament in the Sixteenth Century: Functions and Fortunes’, Hist. , Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. The Restoration was accompanied by social change. 83 Grey, , Debates, V, 277–81, 290–5, 305–14, 327–32Google Scholar. Finch, II, 52Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. 20 But not in 1680 when he told the Lord Chancellor not to mention money (H.M.C., Finch, II, 90)Google Scholar. In the body of this essay the events and disputes that led to this situation will be explored fully. Henning, B. D. (New Haven, 1940)Google Scholar; Diaries and Papers of Sir Edward Dering, ed. The criticisms remain that Charles was unprincipled, prepared to sell his country and his religion to the French; he ducked and dived. Charles II was the eldest surviving child of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria of France. With the expensive disasters of the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–67 the reputation of the restored king sank to its lowest … It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. V, 67, 69 71, 73–5, 82–5, 207 8, 302. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate. 140 Marvell, , Poems and Letters, II, 1–2, 13Google Scholar; Grey, , Debates, I, 337–9Google Scholar; 11, 9; HI, 303; VII, 4–5. Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the battle of Worcester. 110–1Google Scholar. He was captured and executed. 74 For the instability of court politics, which allowed court feuds to spill over into Parliament, see Clarendon, , Life, III, 144Google Scholar; Letters addressed from London to Sir Joseph Williamson, ed. Charles was incapable of thrift; he found it painful to refuse petitioners. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. Charles I James II Conflicts with Parliament. ), P.R.O., Baschet, 147, 148; Dalrymple, , Memoirs, II, Appendix, pp. 568.  On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed; England acquired Catherine's dowry of Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven islands of Bombay (the latter having a major influence on the development of the British Empire in India), together with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine.  In Ireland, a convention had been called earlier in the year, and had already declared for Charles. 108 C.J., IX, 617–18. 24, 1679), the first English Parliament after the Restoration of Charles II to the throne. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. , The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons that was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians. The Relationship of Charles I and the Parliament in 1629 In 1629 Charles I dismissed Parliament and forbade people to speak of calling another, this was the start of Personal Rule. For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, was a Catholic. Traditional celebrations involved the wearing of oak leaves but these have now died out. 1686 Godden v Hales allowed James II to dispense individuals from Test Acts. After Charles I's execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War, the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649. To destroy opposition in London, Charles first disenfranchised many Whigs in the 1682 municipal elections, and in 1683 the London charter was forfeited. The English Parliament recognised Charles as king by unanimous vote on 2 May 1660, and he was proclaimed king in London on 8 May, although royalists had recognised him as such since the execution of his father on 30 January 1649. 113 C.J., IX, 692, 697, 702; H.M.C. One reason for this reluctance to name evil advisers was that opposition politicians sought to show a continuity of policy since the breaking of the Triple Alliance whereas, of the ‘Cabal’, only Lauderdale remained in office and Shaftesbury and Buckingham were vehemently opposed to the court (Ibid., III, 307, 310; V, 243, (351); Miller, J., Popery and Politics in England, 1660–88 (Cambridge, 1973), pp.  Clifford, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned rather than take the oath, and died shortly after, possibly from suicide. Before Charles's restoration, the Navigation Acts of 1650 had hurt Dutch trade by giving English vessels a monopoly, and had started the First Dutch War (1652–1654). On 14 May, he was proclaimed king in Dublin. Cavalier Parliament, (May 8, 1661—Jan.  Plague cases ebbed over the winter, and Charles returned to London in February 1666. , Later in 1678, Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason. Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, and bawdy "Restoration comedy" became a recognisable genre. Beaufort, p. 111Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp.  The Commonwealth made the Treaty of Paris with France in 1657 to join them in war against Spain in the Netherlands. Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy. When the Convention Parliament met in March 1660 there was still some doubt about what action it would take to settle the country, and what influence the army under General Monck would have. The anniversary of the Restoration (which was also Charles's birthday)—29 May—was recognised in England until the mid-nineteenth century as Oak Apple Day, after the Royal Oak in which Charles hid during his escape from the forces of Oliver Cromwell. 91 Grey, , Debates, III, 451Google Scholar; IV, 106–12, 184–6. 166–7; Witcombe, , Charles II, ch. The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew. 44 It was still functioning in March 1671 (C.J., IX, 219). 96 Grey, , Debates, II, 235Google Scholar; III, 295, 341–6; Dering, , Diaries and Papers, pp. There would be pardons for nearly all his opponents except the regicides. "subject": true, The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians). 120 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 168–71Google Scholar. 97 Grey, , Debates, III, 347Google Scholar.  During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill ebbed, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty. 38 B.L., Egerton MS 2539, fo. Find the perfect charles parliament stock photo. 98– 115Google Scholar and H.M.C., Portland, VIII, 15– 19Google Scholar tally closely with Grey. 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